Install & Configure Varnish Cache for Magento 2

May 19, 2016  |  13 Comments  |  by Raj (MagePsycho)  |  Linux, Magento 2

The performance of a website is always the key factor for the higher conversion rate. Fortunately, Magento 2 (both CE & EE) comes by default with the support for FPC (Full Page Caching), Varnish & Redis to make your store fly.
In this tutorial we will be discussing brief info about Varnish, it’s installation and configuration so bear with me.


Magento 2 supports Varnish versions 3.0.5 or later or any Varnish 4.x version.
And Magento team strongly recommends using Varnish in production as the built-in full-page caching (to either the file system or database) is much slower than Varnish, and Varnish is designed to accelerate HTTP traffic.

Varnish Cache is an open source web application accelerator (also referred to as an HTTP accelerator or caching HTTP reverse proxy). Varnish stores (or caches) files or fragments of files in memory; this enables Varnish to reduce the response time and network bandwidth consumption on future, equivalent requests. Unlike web servers like Apache and Nginx, Varnish was designed for use exclusively with the HTTP protocol.


We have carried out the Varnish installation in the following enviroment:

  • Ubuntu – 14.04 LTS
  • Nginx – 1.9.6
  • MySQL – 5.6.28
  • PHP – 5.6.20 (but PHP 7 is recommended)
  • Magento EE – 2.0.5


Run the following series of command as a root user (sudo su).

apt-get install apt-transport-https
curl | apt-key add -
echo "deb trusty varnish-4.1" \
     >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/varnish-cache.list
apt-get update
apt-get install varnish

If everything goes right you should be able to see the Varnish version with:

varnishd -V


Once Varnish is installed, you need to configure it and your web server(Nginx in our case).

Configure your Web Server(Nginx)

Configure your web server to listen on a port (say: 8080) other than the default port 80 because Varnish responds directly to incoming HTTP requests, not the web server.
For this add the ‘listen’ directive in ‘server’ block as:

server {
    listen 8080 default_server;

to default nginx configuration file (generally located at /path/to/nginx/sites-enabled/default)

Configure Varnish Configuration

1. Modify Varnish System Configuration

vim /etc/default/varnish

And edit the file to have similar code:


# Maximum number of open files (for ulimit -n)

# Maximum locked memory size (for ulimit -l)
# Used for locking the shared memory log in memory.  If you increase log size,
# you need to increase this number as well

DAEMON_OPTS="-a :80 \
             -T localhost:6082 \
             -p http_resp_hdr_len=64000 \
             -f /etc/varnish/default.vcl \
             -S /etc/varnish/secret \
             -s malloc,256m"

2. Modify default.vcl
Make a backup of default one.

cp /etc/varnish/default.vcl /etc/varnish/default.vcl.bak
vim /etc/varnish/default.vcl

And edit the lines under ‘backend default’:

# Default backend definition. Set this to point to your content server.
backend default {
.host = "";
.port = "8080";


  • .host – fully qualified host name or IP address and listen port of the Varnish backend or origin server; that is, the server providing the content Varnish will accelerate. Typically, this is your web server.
  • .port – the web server’s listen port (8080 in this example)

Note:This is the minimal configuration. You need to use the configuration which you get from Magento 2’s Varnish Export (Ref – #3).

3. Configure Magento to use Varnish
Instead of manually editing default.vcl, Magneto 2 comes up with an export option for it.
First enable the Full Page Cache to use Varnish (Go to Admin > Stores > Configuration > Advanced > System > Full Page Cache), you will see as:
Save the settings and hit the Export VCL button (Varnish 3 or 4 as per your Varnish Version).
And use this default.vcl to replace the file in /etc/varnish/default.vcl

Finally, restart the Varnish & Nginx

service nginx restart
service varnish restart


I assume You have followed all the above steps (Installation & Configuration). Now lets check if Varnish cache server is taking into account for HTTP response or not.

Check if Varnish is listening to port 80
Run the following command:

netstat -tulpn | grep varnishd


Verify contents in var/cache, var/page_cache folder is not regenerated
Since FPC is configured to serve the content from Varnish, once cleared, cache folders (var/cache, var/page_cache) should always be empty .

Verify the HTTP response headers
Load your Magento 2 Frontend and check the response from browser console, you will see similar as shown in the below screenshot:

Or you can simply use CLI as:

curl -I

And You will see some similar Varnish keywords.

Voila, you’re done. Let your store fly!
Please do comment or contact us if you have any issues regarding Varnish + Magento2 Installation & Configuration.

Run Magento database repair tool from CLI using Ruby’s Mechanize

June 11, 2015  |  No Comments  |  by Raj (MagePsycho)  |  Linux, Magento, Ruby

Shell Scripting which is great for task automation, falls short when it comes to web browser automation.
In case of Magento, using Shell script you can do many operations like Installation, Migration, Deployment, Backup etc. & even more. But when it comes to run the Database Repair Tool(a great tool for repairing Magento database while upgrading) it becomes trickier and complex.

Magento Database Repair Tool

Magento Database Repair Tool

While Upgrading Magento say from to, running DB repair tool for every version manually from browser is repetitive & hectic. So I thought of writing a Ruby CLI script to automate it which will be a simple command with just two parameters(DB repair Url and Magento version).

This console script is a Ruby script which uses Mechanize gem/library.

The Mechanize library is used for automating interaction with websites. Mechanize automatically stores and sends cookies, follows redirects, and can follow links and submit forms. Form fields can be populated and submitted. Mechanize also keeps track of the sites that you have visited as a history.

Install Ruby

Ruby comes pre-installed in Mac. If you are in other operating system please refer to the Installation Document
To test if ruby is already installed, run the following command:

ruby -v

Which will give you the output like:

ruby 2.0.0p481 (2014-05-08 revision 45883) [universal.x86_64-darwin14]

Install Mechanize Gem

You need to install RVM(Ruby Version Manager) first.
First install the stable version of RVM stable with ruby:

\curl -sSL | bash -s stable --ruby

Update your gems:

sudo gem update --system

Now you can instally any gems. Here we will be installing mechanize gem:

gem install mechanize

Prepare & Run the Script

After installation of Ruby, RVM and all it’s required gems, we are ready to go for coding the script.
OS: Mac OS X Yosemite 10.10.4
Ruby: 2.0
Magento Reference Database: magento[version]_vanilla

1. Prepare the Script
Copy the following ruby script to the root of your Magento Dir:
File: mage-db-repair-tool.rb

#!/usr/bin/env ruby

# Magento DB Repair tool using CLI
# Uses Ruby's Mechanize gem
# @author   Raj KB <>
# @website
# Tested on Mac OS-X 10.X

require 'mechanize'
require 'fileutils'

def checkError(page)
  if'.msg_error').length > 0
    puts "[ERROR]"'.msg_error li').each do |li|
      puts li.text.strip

def checkResult(page)
  puts "[RESULT]"'.msg_success li').each do |li|
    puts li.text.strip

def checkNotice(page)
  puts "[NOTICE]"'.msg-note').each do |note|
    puts note.text.strip

  if'.msg-note').length > 1
    puts "See log for more details"

abort "#{$0} Argument Missing" if (ARGV.size < 1)

dbRepairUrl     = ARGV[0]
mageVersion     = ARGV[1]
mageDir         = Dir.pwd
dbRepairLogDir  = "#{mageDir}/var/dp-repair-tool"

FileUtils.mkdir_p "#{dbRepairLogDir}"
fp ="#{dbRepairLogDir}/mage-#{mageVersion}-result.html", "a+")

agent =
page = agent.get(dbRepairUrl)
puts "Loading page: #{page.title}..."
form = page.forms.first

puts "Setting db repair form values..."

# Get DB value from app/etc/local.xml
xmlFile ="#{mageDir}/app/etc/local.xml")
doc = Nokogiri::XML(xmlFile)
corruptedHostname = doc.xpath('/config/global/resources/default_setup/connection/host').text()
corruptedUsername = doc.xpath('/config/global/resources/default_setup/connection/username').text()
corruptedPassword = doc.xpath('/config/global/resources/default_setup/connection/password').text()
corruptedDatabase = doc.xpath('/config/global/resources/default_setup/connection/dbname').text()

form['post_form']           = 'true'
form['corrupted[hostname]'] = corruptedHostname
form['corrupted[database]'] = corruptedDatabase
form['corrupted[username]'] = corruptedUsername
form['corrupted[password]'] = corruptedPassword

# Edit reference database credentials
form['reference[hostname]'] = corruptedHostname
form['reference[database]'] = "magento#{mageVersion}_vanilla"
form['reference[username]'] = corruptedUsername
form['reference[password]'] = corruptedPassword

#p form; exit

puts "Submitting db repair form..."
result_page = form.submit(form.button_with(:id => "button-continue"))

# Check if there is an error & exit

# Continue if there is not an error
# Check if it further requires submission
if'button#button-continue').length > 0

    # Form found again?
    puts "Submitting again..."
    form = result_page.forms.first
    result_page = form.submit(form.button_with(:id => "button-continue"))


You can also download the script from: Magento DB Repair Tool Using CLI – Ruby + Mechanize

2. Run the Script
Give script the executable permission:

cd /path/to/mage-db-repair-tool.rb
chmod +x ./mage-db-repair-tool.rb

Now, You can run the script either by using command:

ruby mage-db-repair-tool.rb <magento-db-repair-url> <magento-version>

or simply using:

./mage-db-repair-tool.rb 1702


./mage-db-repair-tool.rb 1702
Ruby DB Repair Tool Console Output

Ruby DB Repair Tool Console Output

Apart from the results shown at the console output (refer to the above snapshot), You can also check the detailed output logged in your /path/to/magento/var/dp-repair-tool/mage-[magento-version]-result.html

Bonus Tips:

If you want to make system-wide command, then copy the file to the system-wide paths like /usr/local/bin, /usr/bin, /bin etc:

sudo cp /path/to/your/mage-db-repair-tool.rb /usr/local/bin/mageDbRepairToolRb

Now you can run the command from anywhere

mageDbRepairToolRb 1702

Shall you have any issues please post a comment below and I’ll try and help you out.

Sending JSON data to remote server

August 25, 2013  |  2 Comments  |  by Raj (MagePsycho)  |  jQuery, Magento, PHP

JSON: JavaScript Object Notation.
JSON is syntax for storing and exchanging text information. Much like XML.
JSON is smaller than XML, and faster and easier to parse.

You may need to post JSON data to the server for different purposes. If you are wondering about ‘How to send JSON data to remote server?’ then this article is for you. Keep on reading.

In this article, we will share different techniques to send JSON data to the server.
For one of the payment module development in Magento we had to send the encrypted password(using plain password) to the gateway page. And we will use this scenario as an example.

Suppose we have the following data:

#web service to encrypt the password (which accepts the JSON data and returns the result in JSON format)
$url	= '';
#password to be encrypted
$plainPass = 'some-plain-password';
$data = array(
	'password' => urlencode($plainPass)

1. Using Ajax

var data = <?php echo json_encode($data) ?>;
var url  = '<?php echo $url ?>';
    type: "POST",
    url: url,
    data: JSON.stringify(data),
    contentType: "application/json; charset=utf-8",
    dataType: "json",
    success: function(data){
		var jsonObj = jQuery.parseJSON(data);
    failure: function(errorMsg) {

Note: This approach can’t be used in Payment Module as we have to pass the encrypted password in hidden form fields

2. Using Curl

$content = json_encode($data);

$curl = curl_init($url);
curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_HEADER, false);
curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, true);
curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER,
		array("Content-type: application/json"));
curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_POST, true);
curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $content);
curl_setopt($curl, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false); //curl error SSL certificate problem, verify that the CA cert is OK

$result		= curl_exec($curl);
$response	= json_decode($result);

3. Using Streams

$options = array(
	'http' => array(
		'method'  => 'POST',
		'content' => json_encode( $data ),
		'header'=>  "Content-Type: application/json\r\n" .
					"Accept: application/json\r\n"

$context	 = stream_context_create($options);
$result		 = file_get_contents($url, false, $context);
$response	 = json_decode($result);

4. Raw HTTP Post

Using Zend Framework’s HTTP client:

$json = json_encode($data);
$client = new Zend_Http_Client($url);
$client->setRawData($json, 'application/json')->request('POST');

These were some basic examples. If you have any other idea regarding sending json data to the remote server, please share.